Education International Barometer of Human & Trade Union Rights in Education
Glossary
Please find below the full list of terms used on this site and their explanation.
Country data    
Find out about Human & Trade Union Rights in Education worldwide. Choose a country or location to investigate:

Areas of analysis

Academic Freedom
Academic Freedom is an education right, and it lies at the heart of higher education and research. The right to teach, learn, study, research and publish free of reprisal and discrimination makes true education possible. Educators, researchers and students are often the targets of state-sponsored violence and repression by governments for a variety of reasons. Intimidation is used to silence critics and dissidents, and the censorship of teaching, research and publication often follows.

Child Labour
School is the only place where a child should be, not out working. Unfortunately, many children around the world not only do not have the chance to attend school, but are also obliged to work for their livelihood and that of their family. Child Labour is an obstacle to the achievement of Education For All (EFA) and a violation of a child’s right to education.

Early Childhood Education
It has been proven that children who have received early childhood education usually do better in primary education and that contributes significantly to the completion rate of primary education. Education International considers Early Childhood Education (ECE) as part of basic education and hence an integral part of Education For All (EFA).

Education Rights
The right to education of all girls and boys, women and men. Education For All (EFA) is a global campaign launched in 2000 within the Dakar Framework for Action to provide education for all children by 2015. For Education International, all children must be included, not just those who usually get counted and for whom policy is usually developed. Education For All should not be achieved without fulfilling a child’s right to education. Every child deserves a qualified teacher, proper learning environment and ample study material. Putting all children physically in schools does not signify the achievement of Education For All.

Gender Equality
Some 14 million girls that should have been in school are still not in school. The Gender Equity target set within the Dakar Framework of Action for Education For All (EFA) reached its deadline in 2005 with no real improvement for girls’ right to education around the world. The UNDP estimates that at the current rate of progress some 6 million girls will still be out of school in 2015. In 41 countries the gender gap is closing so slowly that parity will not be achieved until after 2040.

Minorities and Indigenous Peoples
Ethnic minority groups often face flagrant violations of their right to education. It is one’s right to be educated in one’s mother tongue, which needs to balanced with the right to learn official language of the country. But this right is denied by the authorities for fear of the rise of nationalism among these groups. Hence they are sometimes forced to receive an education entirely in another language. This is a factor that contributes to the low primary school completion rate among ethnic minorities in these countries. In other cases, minority groups are left out of the education system entirely.

In some countries, indigenous peoples do not form a minority of the population but they are still denied their right to an education in their mother tongue.

Primary Education
Primary education is the chief component of a basic education. The global challenge of Education For All (EFA) is to fulfil the right to education of all children around the world by providing them with free quality public education. Education International considers both Early Childhood Education (ECE) and Primary Education basic education.

Refugee Children
Refugee children are often denied their right to education. Many of them spend their childhood in camps without access to schools. The clear violation of their right is present even in the refugee camps in industrialised countries. Even upon return to their home countries, these children are often left entirely out of the education system.

Secondary Education and Vocational Education/Training
Secondary Education follows Primary Education and normally begins at the age of 13. The content of Secondary Education differs greatly between countries and in some countries, technical and vocational education/training is offered to enable a percentage of students to pursue professional courses. In other cases, secondary education generally also prepares the student for tertiary education should they choose to do so. In recent years, it has been observed that vocational education/training has been opened up to the risk of commercialisation under the guise of ‘professionalizing’ its content. Education International feels strongly that education, being a fundamental human right, should be free, public and of a high quality.

Special Needs Children
Children with special needs should not be denied their right to education. Education should be provided to all children with special needs, regardless of the form of disabilities they might have.

Tertiary/Higher Education
Post-secondary education is generally referred to as Tertiary or Higher Education. Higher Education has a narrower definition, referring usually only to university education of all levels (bachelor, master and doctoral) and encompasses the component of research. Tertiary education has the broader meaning of referring to all post-secondary education. Tertiary education has in many parts of the world come under the threat of commercialisation, especially within the context of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) discussed by members of the World Trade Organisation (WTO).

Trade Union Rights
A worker’s right is enshrined in the Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work of the International Labour Organisation (ILO). The Declaration consists of ILO Conventions 29, 87, 98, 100, 105, 111, 138 and 182. The Conventions protect the right of all workers from forced labour, the freedom of association and the right to organize and collective bargaining, the right to equal remuneration for equal work done, as well as protect them from discrimination. In the education sector, the rights of education workers are often violated by governments who regard education as an essential service, thus denying them their fundamental labour rights.

 

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Statistics

Pre-Primary Enrolment
Pre-primary enrolment is defined as number of students (total) enrolled in pre-primary education.

Pre-Primary Enrolment (% female)
Girls' enrolment share, pre-primary is the number of girls enrolled in pre-primary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in pre-primary school.

Pre-Primary Enrolment (% private)
Private enrolment share (%), pre-primary is the number of pupils in pre-primary education enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils enrolled in pre-primary education.

Pre-Primary Enrolment : Gross Enrolment Rate
Gross enrolment rate, pre-primary is the number of pupils (total) enrolled in pre-primary, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical age group for pre-primary education.

Pre-Primary Enrolment : Net Enrolment Rate
Net enrolment rate, pre-primary level is the number of pupils (total) in the theoretical age group for pre-primary education enrolled in pre-primary education expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

Primary Enrolment
Primary enrolment is defined as number of students (total) enrolled in primary education.

Primary Enrolment (% female)
Girls' enrolment share, primary is the number of girls enrolled in primary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in primary school.

Primary Enrolment (% private)
Private enrolment share (%),primary is the number of pupils in primary education enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils enrolled in primary education.

Primary Enrolment : Gross Enrolment Rate
Gross enrolment rate, primary is the number of pupils (total) enrolled in primary, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical age group for primary education.

Primary Enrolment : Net Enrolment Rate
Net enrolment rate, primary level is the number of pupils (total) in the theoretical age group for primary education enrolled in primary education expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

Primary Level Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Pupil-teacher ratio, primary is the average number of pupils per teacher in primary education in a given school-year, based on headcounts for both pupils and teachers.

Primary Cohort Completion Rate
Primary cohort completion rate is the number of students (total) regardless of age in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters (total) in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

Primary Cohort Completion Rate (% female)
Primary cohort completion rate, (% female) is the percentage of female students out of the total number of students (total) regardless of age in the last grade of primary school, minus the number of repeaters (total) in that grade, divided by the total number of children of official graduation age.

Secondary Enrolment
Secondary enrolment is defined as number of students (total) enrolled in secondary education.

Secondary Enrolment (% female)
Girls' enrolment share, secondary is the number of girls enrolled in secondary school, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils in secondary school.

Secondary Enrolment (% private)
Private enrolment share (%), secondary is the number of pupils in secondary education enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise, expressed as a percentage of the total number of pupils enrolled in secondary education.

Secondary Enrolment : Gross Enrolment Rate
Gross enrolment rate, secondary is the number of pupils (total) enrolled in secondary level, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population in the theoretical age group for secondary education.

Secondary Enrolment : Net Enrolment Rate
Net enrolment rate, secondary level is the number of pupils (total) in the theoretical age group for secondary education enrolled in secondary education expressed as a percentage of the total population in that age group.

Secondary Level Pupil-Teacher Ratio
Pupil-teacher ratio, secondary is the average number of pupils per teacher in secondary education in a given school-year, based on headcounts for both pupils and teachers.

Tertiary Enrolment
Tertiary enrolment is defined as number of students (total) enrolled in tertiary education.

Tertiary Enrolment (% female)
Women enrolment share, tertiary is the number of women enrolled in tertiary education, expressed as a percentage of the total number of students in tertiary education.

Tertiary Enrolment (% private)
Private enrolment share (%), tertiary is the number of students in tertiary education enrolled in institutions that are not operated by a public authority but controlled and managed, whether for profit or not, by a private body such as a nongovernmental organisation, religious body, special interest group, foundation or business enterprise, expressed as a percentage of the total number of students enrolled in tertiary education.

Tertiary Enrolment : Gross Enrolment Rate
Gross enrolment rate, tertiary is the number of students (total) enrolled in tertiary education, regardless of age, expressed as a percentage of the population of the five-year age group following on from the secondary school leaving age.

Total public spending on education as % of GDP
Total public expenditure on education as a % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is the current and capital expenditures on education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities (household contributions are excluded), expressed as a percentage of the gross domestic product.

Total public spending on education as % of government expenditure
Public expenditure on education, % of total government spending is the current and capital expenditures on education by local, regional and national governments, including municipalities (household contributions are excluded) expressed as a percentage of total government expenditure on all sectors (including health, education, social services, etc.).

 

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Terms

AI
Amnesty International

CEDAW
United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women

CE
Council of Europe

EFA
Education For All, global campaign launched in 2000 within the Dakar Framework for Action to provide education for all children by 2015

ETUC
European Confederation of Trade Unions

EHRC
European Human Rights Commission

Eurydice
An information network on education in Europe

GATS
General Agreement on Trade in Services

HIV/AIDS
Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

HDR
Human Development Report

HRW
Human Rights Watch

ITUC
International Trade Union Confederation (prior to November 2006 known as ICFTU, International Trade Union Confederation)

ILO
International Labour Organisation

IPEC
ILO’s International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour

ILO Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work
The Declaration consists of ILO Conventions 29, 87, 98, 100, 105, 111, 138 and 182

IOM
International Organisation for Migration

Médecins sans Frontières
International humanitarian aid organisation

NGO
Non-government organisation(s)

OAS
Organisation of American States

OECD
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OHCHR/UNCHR
Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights

PSI
Public Service International

Save the Children
International humanitarian organisation concerned with children’s rights

Tripartite
Meaning “three parties” – here referring to “government, employers, and workers”

TUAC
Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD

UNDP
United Nations Development Programme

UNESCO
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation

UNICEF
United Nations Children’s Fund

UIS
UNESCO Institute for Statistics

UNHCR
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

WHO
World Health Organisation

WTO
World Trade Organisation

 

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International Conventions and Recommendations

 

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Country Comparison
Compare the statistical data from 2 different countries using the fields below. Choose a first and second country to compare, then a year.
   
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