Lee Nordstrum in an independent education research consultant specializing in education finance, demand for schooling and teacher issues in developing countries. He has most recently conducted research and consulted for the Global Partnership for Education, UNESCO EFA Global Monitoring Report, the International Labour Organization and the Government of Togo. Commissioned papers include: private household spending on public primary schooling in low-income countries (2012 EFA GMR); the impact of the economic crisis on education finance (ILO); teacher quantity and quality supply gaps in developing countries; cost constraints to expanding and upgrading the teacher workforce; and teacher training systems (ILO). Prior to this, his doctoral research at the University of Cambridge focused on the impact that school user fees and their abolition in poor schools have on education demand in South Africa. Lee is based in California, USA with his wife and two children.