The Federal Republic of Germany has always been heavily influenced by migration, both of a permanent and temporary nature.
Despite high levels of immigration, government policies did not consider Germany a country of immigration until the new residence law that came into force in 2005. Since then, immigration is no longer treated legally as exception. Immigration of (highly) skilled people is officially encouraged, and the need to assist integration is accepted.
German school systems differ in the country’s 16 states, with additional discretion at city or school level. Therefore, it is not possible to give a comprehensive overview of a ‘German’ approach towards the integration of refugee children and youth. Education authorities in the different states have devoted considerable efforts to defining and supplying good education to refugees. However, several central areas of action can be identified.